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Date added 11 August 2009
Last edited 12 November 2009

Full Title

Z39.84 ANSI/NISO Z39.84 - Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier


A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is an interoperable digital persistent identifier for a piece of intellectual property which is actionable on a digital network. Unlike a url it identifies the actual object, not just the location where it can be found. DOIs can be assigned at different levels of granularity eg a book, a chapter or a page.

DOI is an implementation of the Handle System technology developed by the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI). DOIs are available from a DOI Registration Agency and there is usually an associated fee.

Standards Developing Organisation



No information

Lifecycle Action

Access, Use and Reuse

Standard Frameworks

Digital Archive Standards
Digital Repository Standards

Standard Type

Identifier Standards

Current Version

Further Information

The DOI System [external]

Alternative Current Versions


Previous Versions


Referenced Standards

IETF RFC 3650: November 2003, Handle System Overview
IETF RFC 3651: November 2003 Handle System Namespace and Service Definition
IETF RFC 3652: November 2003, Handle System Protocol (Ver 2.1) Specification
IETF RFC 4452: April 2006, The info URI Scheme for Information Assets with Identifiers in Public Namespaces
ISO/IEC 21000-6: Information Technology - Multimedia Framework (MPEG-21) - Part 6: Rights Data Dictionary
Unicode Standard, Version 4.0.1, defined by: The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0